26 aug Example Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in kids. It had been first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was commonly known as hyperactivity or syndrome that is hyperactive it had been renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior into the inattention as a characteristic that is major of disorder.
In the us the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls. White children generally have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, as well as school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a part in the prevalence that is rising.
The most common treatment that is medical ADHD is with psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) and other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in modern times; in 2004 the Department of health insurance and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The treatment and diagnosis of ADHD is much higher in the United States compared to other countries, but evidence shows that since the 1990s it was rising far away as well, for example, in britain.
The causes of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have already been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In past times 2 decades, medical researchers have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and found differences in brain imaging results from those with ADHD and individuals without ADHD. The causes of ADHD are still largely unknown although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate. Some contend that regardless if there are biological differences between children with ADHD as well as other children, what is observed might be a reflection of variations in temperament instead of a disorder that is specific.
ADHD and its particular treatment have already been controversial at the least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed anxiety about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is merely a label for childhood behavior that is deviant. Others grant that some children could have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there’s been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Some educators and parents have raised concerns about adverse effects from long-term use of stimulant medications from time to time. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the utmost childhood that is common disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as for example CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), have a tendency to support the perspective that is medical of.
Since the 1990s there is a rise that is significant the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is normally parent or school identified, adult ADHD seems to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that many apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment due to learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, after which seeing their very own life problems reflected into the http://ultius.com/ description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a major problem that is social with claims of tens of huge amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income as a result of disorder, whereas critics have suggested it really is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a vintage case associated with the medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one and the remedy for ADHD as a form of medical control that is social.
Whereas some have pointed out that when a problem becomes medicalized it is less stigmatized, because its origin sometimes appears as physiological or biomedical rather than as connected to volitional behavior, others point to the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing behavior that is deviant ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful forms of medical social control (medications) to be used. Secondary gain, accruing social advantages of a diagnosis that is medical is also a problem with ADHD. You can find reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain disability that is learning in order to have certain benefits, such as for instance untimed tests or alternative assignments. From a sociological view, the meaning of ADHD is a prime exemplory instance of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an acknowledged diagnosis. For many individuals, ADHD has become deemed a disorder that is lifelong with an expanding age groups for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lowered threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. It is more likely that an increasing number of individuals are being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD although it is possible that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some kind of social cause.